llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll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llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll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llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllfont-family:宋体;mso-hansi-font-family: 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bint返回β的95%的置信区间。r中为形状残差,rint中返回每一个残差的95%置信区间。Stats向量包含R2统计量、回归的F值和p值。

1:y的值为给定的x的线性函数加服从标准正态分布的随机干扰值得到。即y=10+x+ε ;求线性拟合方程系数。

程序: x=[ones(10,1) (1:10)’]

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              [b,bint]=regress(y,x,0.05)

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2.         多项式曲线拟合函数:polyfit( )

调用格式:  p=polyfit(x,y,n)

                     [p,s]= polyfit(x,y,n)

说明:x,y为数据点,n为多项式阶数,返回p为幂次从高到低的多项式系数向量p。矩阵s用于生成预测值的误差估计。(见下一函数polyval)

2由离散数据

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              n=3;

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              xi=linspace(0,1,100);

              z=polyval(p,xi); %多项式求值

              plot(x,y,’o’,xi,z,’k:’,x,y,’b’)

              legend(‘原始数据’,’3阶曲线’)

结果:

p =

   16.7832  -25.7459   10.9802   -0.0035

多项式为:16.7832x3-25.7459x2+10.9802x-0.0035

曲线拟合图形:

也可由函数给出数据。

3x=1:20,y=x+3*sin(x)

程序:

       x=1:20;

       y=x+3*sin(x);

       p=polyfit(x,y,6)

       xi=1inspace(1,20,100);

       z=poyval(p,xi);     %多项式求值函数

       plot(x,y,’o’,xi,z,’k:’,x,y,’b’)

       legend(‘原始数据’,’6阶曲线’)

结果:

p =

0.0000   -0.0021    0.0505   -0.5971    3.6472   -9.7295   11.3304

再用10阶多项式拟合

      程序:x=1:20;

y=x+3*sin(x);

p=polyfit(x,y,10)

xi=linspace(1,20,100);

z=polyval(p,xi);

plot(x,y,'o',xi,z,'k:',x,y,'b')

legend('原始数据','10阶多项式')

结果:p =

  Columns 1 through 7

    0.0000   -0.0000    0.0004   -0.0114    0.1814   -1.8065   11.2360

  Columns 8 through 11

  -42.0861   88.5907  -92.8155   40.2671

可用不同阶的多项式来拟合数据,但也不是阶数越高拟合的越好。

3.         多项式曲线求值函数:polyval( )

调用格式:  y=polyval(p,x)

                     [y,DELTA]=polyval(p,x,s)

说明:y=polyval(p,x)为返回对应自变量x在给定系数P的多项式的值。

[y,DELTA]=polyval(p,x,s) 使用polyfit函数的选项输出s得出误差估计YDELTA。它假设polyfit函数数据输入的误差是独立正态的,并且方差为常数。则YDELTA将至少包含50%的预测值。

4.         多项式曲线拟合的评价和置信区间函数:polyconf( )

调用格式:  [Y,DELTA]=polyconf(p,x,s)

                     [Y,DELTA]=polyconf(p,x,s,alpha)

说明:[Y,DELTA]=polyconf(p,x,s)使用polyfit函数的选项输出s给出Y95%置信区间YDELTA。它假设polyfit函数数据输入的误差是独立正态的,并且方差为常数。1-alpha为置信度。

4给出上面例1的预测值及置信度为90%的置信区间。

程序:   x=0:.1:1;

                     y=[.3 .5 1 1.4 1.6 1.9 .6 .4 .8 1.5 2]

                     n=3;

              [p,s]=polyfit(x,y,n)

              alpha=0.05;

[Y,DELTA]=polyconf(p,x,s,alpha)

       结果:   p =

                          16.7832  -25.7459   10.9802   -0.0035

s =

    R: [4x4 double]

       df: 7

                                normr: 1.1406

Y =

  Columns 1 through 7

   -0.0035    0.8538    1.2970    1.4266    1.3434    1.1480    0.9413

  Columns 8 through 11

    0.8238    0.8963    1.2594    2.0140

DELTA =

  Columns 1 through 7

    1.3639    1.1563    1.1563    1.1589    1.1352    1.1202    1.1352

  Columns 8 through 11

1.1589    1.1563    1.1563    1.3639

5.         稳健回归函数:robust( )

稳健回归是指此回归方法相对于其他回归方法而言,受异常值的影响较小。

调用格式:  b=robustfit(x,y)

                     [b,stats]=robustfit(x,y)

                     [b,stats]=robustfit(x,y,’wfun’,tune,’const’)

说明:b返回系数估计向量;stats返回各种参数估计;’wfun’指定一个加权函数;tune为调协常数;’const’的值为’on’(默认值)时添加一个常数项;为’off ’时忽略常数项。

5演示一个异常数据点如何影响最小二乘拟合值与稳健拟合。首先利用函数y=10-2x加上一些随机干扰的项生成数据集,然后改变一个y的值形成异常值。调用不同的拟合函数,通过图形观查影响程度。

程序:x=(1:10)’;

y=10-2*x+randn(10,1);

y(10)=0;

bls=regress(y,[ones(10,1) x]) %线性拟合

brob=robustfit(x,y) %稳健拟合

scatter(x,y)

hold on

plot(x,bls(1)+bls(2)*x,’:’)

plot(x,brob(1)+brob(2)*x,’r‘)

结果 bls =

                    8.4452

                   -1.4784

brob =

                   10.2934

                   -2.0006

分析:稳健拟合(实线)对数据的拟合程度好些,忽略了异常值。最小二乘拟合(点线)则受到异常值的影响,向异常值偏移。

6.         向自定义函数拟合

对于给定的数据,根据经验拟合为带有待定常数的自定义函数。

所用函数:nlinfit( )

调用格式:  [beta,r,J]=nlinfit(X,y,’fun’,betao)

说明:beta返回函数’fun’中的待定常数;r表示残差;J表示雅可比矩阵。X,y为数据;‘fun’自定义函数;beta0待定常数初值。

6在化工生产中获得的氯气的级分y随生产时间x下降,假定在x8时,yx之间有如下形式的非线性模型:

      

现收集了44组数据,利用该数据通过拟合确定非线性模型中的待定常数。

x            y                   x            y                   x            y

8            0.49               16           0.43               28           0.41

8            0.49               18           0.46               28           0.40

10           0.48               18           0.45               30           0.40

10           0.47               20           0.42               30           0.40

10           0.48               20           0.42               30           0.38

10           0.47               20           0.43               32           0.41

12           0.46               20           0.41               32           0.40

12           0.46               22           0.41               34           0.40

12           0.45               22           0.40               36           0.41

12           0.43               24           0.42               36           0.36

14           0.45               24           0.40               38           0.40

14           0.43               24           0.40               38           0.40

14           0.43               26           0.41               40           0.36

16           0.44               26           0.40               42           0.39

16           0.43               26           0.41

       首先定义非线性函数的m文件:fff6.m

function yy=model(beta0,x)

  a=beta0(1);

  b=beta0(2);

  yy=a+(0.49-a)*exp(-b*(x-8));

       程序:

x=[8.00 8.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 14.00 14.00 14.00... 

     16.00 16.00 16.00 18.00 18.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 22.00 22.00 24.00...  

     24.00 24.00 26.00 26.00 26.00 28.00 28.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 32.00 32.00...

     34.00 36.00 36.00 38.00 38.00 40.00 42.00]';

   y=[0.49 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.43 0.45 0.43 0.43 0.44 0.43...

     0.43 0.46 0.42 0.42 0.43 0.41 0.41 0.40 0.42 0.40 0.40 0.41 0.40 0.41 0.41...

     0.40 0.40 0.40 0.38 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.41 0.38 0.40 0.40 0.39 0.39]';

     beta0=[0.30 0.02];

betafit = nlinfit(x,y,'sta67_1m',beta0)

结果:betafit =

                0.3896

0.1011

       即:a=0.3896 b=0.1011 拟合函数为:

§2 插值问题

在应用领域中,由有限个已知数据点,构造一个解析表达式,由此计算数据点之间的函数值,称之为插值。

实例:海底探测问题

某公司用声纳对海底进行测试,在5×5海里的坐标点上测得海底深度的值,希望通过这些有限的数据了解更多处的海底情况。并绘出较细致的海底曲面图。

一、一元插值

一元插值是对一元数据点(xi,yi)进行插值。

1.  线性插值:由已知数据点连成一条折线,认为相临两个数据点之间的函数值就在这两点之间的连线上。一般来说,数据点数越多,线性插值就越精确。

调用格式:yi=interp1(x,y,xi,’linear’)  %线性插值

zi=interp1(x,y,xi,’spline’)  %三次样条插值

wi=interp1(x,y,xi,’cubic’)  %三次多项式插值

说明:yiziwi为对应xi的不同类型的插值。xy为已知数据点。

1已知数据:

x

0

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

.9

1

y

.3

.5

1

1.4

1.6

1.9

.6

.4

.8

1.5

2

求当xi=0.25时的yi的值。

程序:

x=0:.1:1;

y=[.3 .5 1 1.4 1.6 1 .6 .4 .8 1.5 2];

yi0=interp1(x,y,0.025,'linear')

xi=0:.02:1;

yi=interp1(x,y,xi,'linear');

zi=interp1(x,y,xi,'spline');

wi=interp1(x,y,xi,'cubic');

plot(x,y,'o',xi,yi,'r+',xi,zi,'g*',xi,wi,'k.-')

legend('原始点','线性点','三次样条','三次多项式')

结果:yi0 =  0.3500

要得到给定的几个点的对应函数值,可用:

xi =[ 0.2500  0.3500  0.4500]

yi=interp1(x,y,xi,'spline')

结果:

yi =1.2088  1.5802  1.3454

() 二元插值

二元插值与一元插值的基本思想一致,对原始数据点(x,y,z)构造见世面函数求出插值点数据(xi,yi,zi)

一、单调节点插值函数,即x,y向量是单调的。

调用格式1zi=interp2(x,y,z,xi,yi,’linear’)

‘liner’ 是双线性插值 (缺省)

调用格式2zi=interp2(x,y,z,xi,yi,’nearest’)

’nearest’ 是最近邻域插值

调用格式3zi=interp2(x,y,z,xi,yi,’spline’)

‘spline’是三次样条插值

说明:这里xy是两个独立的向量,它们必须是单调的。z是矩阵,是由xy确定的点上的值。zx,y之间的关系是z(i,:)=f(x,y(i)) z(:,j)=f(x(j),y) 即:当x变化时,z的第i行与y的第i个元素相关,当y变化时z的第j列与x的第j个元素相关。如果没有对x,y赋值,则默认x=1:n, y=1:mnm分别是矩阵z的行数和列数。

2已知某处山区地形选点测量坐标数据为:

x=0  0.5  1  1.5  2  2.5  3  3.5  4  4.5  5

y=0  0.5  1  1.5  2  2.5  3  3.5  4  4.5  5  5.5  6

海拔高度数据为:

z=89 90 87 85 92 91 96 93 90 87 82

   92 96 98 99 95 91 89 86 84 82 84

   96 98 95 92 90 88 85 84 83 81 85

   80 81 82 89 95 96 93 92 89 86 86

   82 85 87 98 99 96 97 88 85 82 83

   82 85 89 94 95 93 92 91 86 84 88

   88 92 93 94 95 89 87 86 83 81 92

   92 96 97 98 96 93 95 84 82 81 84

   85 85 81 82 80 80 81 85 90 93 95

   84 86 81 98 99 98 97 96 95 84 87

   80 81 85 82 83 84 87 90 95 86 88

   80 82 81 84 85 86 83 82 81 80 82

   87 88 89 98 99 97 96 98 94 92 87

其地貌图为:

对数据插值加密形成地貌图。

程序:

x=0:.5:5;

y=0:.5:6;

z=[89 90 87 85 92 91 96 93 90 87 82

   92 96 98 99 95 91 89 86 84 82 84

   96 98 95 92 90 88 85 84 83 81 85

   80 81 82 89 95 96 93 92 89 86 86

   82 85 87 98 99 96 97 88 85 82 83

   82 85 89 94 95 93 92 91 86 84 88

   88 92 93 94 95 89 87 86 83 81 92

   92 96 97 98 96 93 95 84 82 81 84

   85 85 81 82 80 80 81 85 90 93 95

   84 86 81 98 99 98 97 96 95 84 87

   80 81 85 82 83 84 87 90 95 86 88

   80 82 81 84 85 86 83 82 81 80 82

   87 88 89 98 99 97 96 98 94 92 87];

mesh(x,y,z)  %绘原始数据图

xi=linspace(0,5,50);  %加密横坐标数据到50

yi=linspace(0,6,80);  %加密纵坐标数据到60

[xii,yii]=meshgrid(xi,yi);  %生成网格数据

zii=interp2(x,y,z,xii,yii,'cubic');  %插值

mesh(xii,yii,zii)  %加密后的地貌图

hold on     % 保持图形

[xx,yy]=meshgrid(x,y);  %生成网格数据

plot3(xx,yy,z+0.1,’ob’)  %原始数据用‘O’绘出

2、二元非等距插值

调用格式:zi=griddata(x,y,z,xi,yi,’指定插值方法’)

插值方法有: linear          % 线性插值   (默认)

             bilinear     % 双线性插值

             cubic        % 三次插值

             bicubic      % 双三次插值

             nearest      % 最近邻域插值

例:用随机数据生成地貌图再进行插值

程序:

x=rand(100,1)*4-2;

y=rand(100,1)*4-2;

z=x.*exp(-x.^2-y.^2);

ti=-2:.25:2;

[xi,yi]=meshgrid(ti,ti); % 加密数据

zi=griddata(x,y,z,xi,yi);% 线性插值

mesh(xi,yi,zi)

hold on

plot3(x,y,z,'o')

该例中使用的数据是随机形成的,故函数griddata可以处理无规则的数据。